2009年03月05日

complement : The risks

from "TAKE 5 : Save handling of nanotechnoiogy".

As research leaders in our respective fields, we recognize that systematic risk research is need if emerging nano-industries are to thrive.

We cannot set the international reserch agenda on our own, but can inspire the scientific community - including government, industry, academia and other stakeholders - to move in the right direction.

So we prppose five grand callenges to stimulate research that is imaginative, innvative and avove all relevant to the safery of nanotechnology.

Fears over the possible dangers of somme nanotechnologyes may be exaggerated, but they are not necessarily unfounded.

Recent studies examiming the toxicity of engineered nanomaterials in cell cultures and animals have shown that size, surface area, surface chemistry solubility and possibly shape all play a role in determining the potential for engineerd nano-meterials to couse harm.(Oberdorster,G., Oberdorster,E. & Oberdorster, J. Environ Health Perspect. 13,823-840/2005)

This is not suprising : we have known for many years that inhaled dusts cause disease, and that their harmfulness depends on both what they are made of and their physical nature.

For instance, small particles of inhaled quartz lead to lung damage and the potential development of progressive lung disease, yet the same particles with a thin coating of clay are less harmful.(Donaldson,K. & Borm,P.J.A.Ann. Occup.Hyg. 42,287-294/1998)

Asbestos presents a far more dramatic example : thin, long fibress of the material can lead to lung disease if inhaled, but grind the fibres down to shorter particles with the same chemical make-up and the harmful ness is signficantly reduced.(Davis, J. G. et al. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 67,415-430/1986)

It is generally accepted that, in principle, some nanomaterials may have the potential to cause harm to people and the enbironment.

But the way science is done is often ill-equipped to address novel ridks associated with emerging technologyes.

Reserch into understanding and preventing risk often has a low priority in the compertitive worlds of intellectual property, research funding and technology development.

And yet there is much at stake in how potential nano-specific riskes are understood and managed.

without strategic and targeted risk research, people producing and using nano-materials could develop unanticipated illness arising from their exposure ; public confidence in nanotechnoligies could be reduced through real or perceived dangers ; and fears of litigation may make nanotechnologies less attractive to investors and the insurance industry.


(...to be continue...)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.444 243-400 Issue no.7117 16 November 2007
Commentary p.267 / Save handling of nanotechnoiogy / Andrew D. Maynard

posted by 0≠素子 at 02:05| Comment(0) | nanotechnology | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年03月04日

TAKE 5 : Save handling of nanotechnoiogy

The pursuit og responsible nanotechnologies can be tackled through a series of grand challengs, argue Andrew D. Maynard and his co-authors.

When the physist and Nobel laureate Richard Feynman challenged the science community to think small in his 1959 lecture 'There's Plenty of Room at The Bottom', he planted the seeds of a new era in science and technology.

Nanotechnology, which is about controlling matter at near-atomic scals to produce unique or enhanced materials, products and devices, is now maturing rapidly with more than 300 claimed nanotechnology products already on the market.(The Nanotechnology Consumer Products Inventory / Washington DC,2006/Published online at -www.nanotechproject.org/consimerproducts)

Yet concerns have been raised that the very properties of nanostructured materials that make them so attractive could potentially lead to unforeseen health or environmental hazards.(Nsnoscience and Nanotechnologies : Opportunities and Uncertainties / The RoyalSociety and The Royal Academy of Engineering, London,2004)

The spectre of possible harm - whether real or imagined - is threatening to slow the development of nanotechnology unless sound, independent and authoritative information is developed on what the risk are, and how to aboid them.(Takling Action on Nanotech Environmental, Health and safety Risks / Lux Research, New York,2006)

In what may be unprecedented pre-emptive action in the face of a new technology, governments,industries and research organizations around the world are beginning to address how the benefits of emerging nanotechnologies can be realized while while minimizing potential risks.(Report of the OECD Workshop on the safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials : Building Co-operation and Communication / Organization for Economic Co-operation and Develoment,Paris,2006)

Yet despite a clear commitment to support risk-focused ersearch,opportunities to establish collaborative, integrated and targeted reserch programies are being missed .(Maynard,A.D Nanotechnology : A Research Strategy for Addressing Risk / Woodrw Wilson International Center for Scholars, washington DC,2006)

In september, Sherwood Boehlert, chair of the US House Sience Commitee, commented in a hearing that "we're on the right path to dealing with the problem, but we're sauntering down it when it when a sense of urgency is required".

And in October, Britain's Royal Society reised concerns that the UK government had not made enough progerss on reducing the uncertain ties surrounding the health and environmental impacts of nanomaterials.(Two-Year Review of Progress on Government Actions : Joint Academies'Response to the Council for Science and Technology's Call for Evidence / The Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Engineering, London,2006)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.444 243-400 Issue no.7117 16 November 2007
Commentary p.267 / Save handling of nanotechnoiogy / Andrew D. Maynard

続きを読む
posted by 0≠素子 at 03:37| Comment(0) | nanotechnology | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする
×

この広告は1年以上新しい記事の投稿がないブログに表示されております。